Yes, the website fakoo.de is absolutely free. All
information and learning content is freely accessible and can be used by anyone unconditionally. Neither
registration nor the provision of user data is necessary. Nevertheless, I would be very happy
about a donation from you to maintain this free offer.
Who is this website fakoo.de for?
The website fakoo.de deals with the alphabets of people
with disabilities and is therefore available to all interested parties who want to find out more about these
alphabets or the communication of people with disabilities or who want to learn these
alphabets. This also includes people with disabilities or people at risk of becoming disabled. At the
same time, this site wants to break down and enlighten prejudices in relation to the use of
alphabets by disabled people.
What are the requirements for use of fakoo.de?
All you need to use the fakoo.de website is a
Why aren't points or anything like that awarded for the exercises on fakoo.de?
Learning on the fakoo.de site is generally
done without points or ratings. Individual learning based on prior knowledge and personal
suitability is only limited by the allocation of points, and failure to achieve certain
goals is experienced as frustration.
The hunt for points, outbidding each other or even cheating in order to achieve certain
goals or eliminate opponents contradicts the natural learning and also the basic concern of
this site. The only way to learn alphabets or languages properly is through constant
practice and practical application.
Is this website fakoo.de barrier-free?
The website fakoo.de was developed with
special consideration of visual impairments and therefore offers most of the information in text
form in addition to the graphic display. Invisible additional information has been
incorporated for use with alternative output devices. Pure keyboard use is also possible.
Unfortunately, only sign language videos cannot be offered.
Why are Cаptchas used on fakoo.de, they are considered non-accessible?
In all forms on the fakoo.de website, a code
is requested at the end, which is shown next to it. This appears to be a Cаptcha.
However, this code does not represent a Cаptcha for recognizing human input, but the
layout features, input options ...) in order to be able to isolate errors and respond accordingly
to problems described.
(That's why the same code is always displayed as long as you don't make browser or
Can I use the graphics shown on fakoo.de for my purposes?
The website fakoo.de is copyrighted.
Therefore, in general, no graphics may be used for publications on the Internet or in electronic
or print media without the written permission of the author of this site. The graphics marked
with the CC logo, which are subject to a corresponding
CC license, are an exception. The conditions of
the Creative Commons license must be observed.
/ or similar
What is the difference between writing and alphabet?
The word 'alphabet' comes from the ancient Greek (alphábetos,
derived from alpha + betha) and describes a fixed order of the letters in a script. In English, this order
is also called 'ABC'. But there are also scripts on earth for whose characters no order,
i.e. no alphabet has been or can be specified e.g.
(To make a dictionary you need an alphabet. If you don't have one, you have to invent one or find some other order.)
I am a member of the EMTs, what alphabet should I learn?
The most important alphabet in this sense is the finger
alphabet to be able to communicate with deaf people in emergencies. That should be enough for short questions
and answers. Sign language is only recommended for those emergency services who can refresh this extensive
language regularly. If you need to communicate with deaf-blind people, a tactile alphabet can help. However,
not all deaf-blind people can understand a tactile alphabet, but almost all can understand
drawn on the palm of the hand.
So I recommend everyone to acquire the finger alphabet and the knowledge of how to deal
with deaf-blind people.
What are trapezoidal texts?
A trademark of this website is the large number of elaborately
handcrafted trapezoid texts, which are only visible in the desktop version (screen wider
than 850 pixels). The aim was and is to indicate a course with texts and to make them visually more
In order to design large texts in such a way that they optically get narrower at the bottom or top,
the content often has to be adjusted or rearranged, words added, exchanged, separated or removed. On the
one hand, this requires good language skills (German, English) and, on the other hand, a certain ambition.
Is Braille still relevant?
If you don't want to stand out in today's society, you need to have the
necessary reading and writing skills. There is no way around Braille if you want
to acquire and consolidate the necessary spelling skills or to be able to read books. Despite the increasing
use of acoustic systems, books or other documents cannot be completely replaced in the educational, work
or leisure sectors. In addition, speech output is annoying in certain environments or cannot be used due
to noise. And finally, there is a huge difference between reading a book and listening to a book.
Is braille the same all over the world?
The basis for the international implementation of Braille was a uniform
system of English Braille, which was adopted in early 20th century. After that, this Braille was introduced
in all countries that used Latin letters (Romance language area).
In countries with other writing systems, the Braille characters have been adapted
in China with their word writing, a phonetic Braille system is used. Today, all blind people in the
world read Braille uniformly from left to right, even in Arabic-speaking countries. However, the Braille
characters do not always mean the same thing.
In the Romance language area, only the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet are the
to the grad 1). Umlaut, accent or phonetic characters are adapted to the respective writing
system of the country (corresponds to grad2). And the abbreviations of the countries are
adapted to the respective vocabulary and are therefore not internationally compatible with each other.
Where can I learn Braille as an affected / blind person?
People who want to learn Braille due to declining eyesight naturally
have to learn to read it with their fingers. However, this is not possible via the Internet
and due to the lack of sensitivity of the fingertips of formerly sighted people, it cannot be
implemented quickly either. Those affected should therefore contact the local blind associations
or organizations in order to learn tactile or haptic reading from a real Braille teacher.
(It starts with Grade 1. In order to learn the shorthand for the blind with
its numerous abbreviations and extensive rules, one needs incomparably more time. In the case of
late-blind people it takes two to three years.)
How long will it take me to learn Braille?
Depending on your willingness to learn, you can learn the Braille
alphabet in 2 to 5 days. The alphabet is only learned visually, reading with the fingers is hardly
possible for sighted people because of the lack of sensitization of the sense of touch. In a week or
two, reading grade 1 with your eyes should no longer be a problem.
(To learn shorthand for the blind, with its numerous abbreviations and extensive
rules, so that one can read books, one needs incomparably more time. With late binding one to two
Can I learn Braille using a system?
Braille is now round 200 years
old and was developed very systematically by Louis Braille.
However, this system is more of a hindrance to learning the letters and should therefore be ignored when
learning or even taken as a basis. Instead, memorize the individual dot patterns of the letters like
constellations and deepen your knowledge through constant repetition.
(You memorized the Latin alphabet also without a system, simply learned one
letter after the other without analyzing possible connections or deriving one letter from another.)
Should I learn Braille (Grade 2)?
Shorthand for the blind was introduced around 100 years ago and,
unlike the normal Braille alphabet, cannot be used internationally because it has to take
country-specific word formations and spellings into account. Since the saving, despite complicated
rules and the use of special characters, is only a maximum of 40% of the volume, and on the other
hand the learning effort is very high (up to 2 years), it only makes sense to learn shorthand if
you want to read real Braille books later.
(Shorthand is not usually used on the internet or on information boards in public places.)
Can I display Texts for the Blind with Unicode Braille characters?
Neither the use of Unicode Braille characters nor the use of a font
that represents Braille will help blind people to read text on the Internet. Blind people read normal
text with their means. So the text does not have to be changed.
Much more important for blind visitors is clear navigation through the website (orientation
is also possible without Flash and graphics) and the description of images (at least alt attribute,
better title attribute or longdesc function)
alt attribute if you can't see the graphic (replacement text)
title attribute if you cannot explain the graphic (additional explanation as a tool tip)
longdesc attribute if an extensive image description follows as a text file
How can I display Braille on the Internet?
There are basically two options:
the Braille is displayed as a graphic (in the alt attribute the text should be repeated for the blind)
Braille is displayed with a font (blind people see the normal text instead of the font)
Both variants of the optical representation of Braille are only for the sighted, blind people have nothing
of it (see previous question). Rather, they still have difficulty reading the texts (forgotten or
insufficient alternative text [alt attribute] or incorrect text conversion for special Braille fonts).
The graphic with the same alternative text is recommended, since a uniform and correct display for all
visitors cannot be guaranteed with fonts.
What is the difference between haptic and tactile?
In principle, both terms have the same origin, the sense of touch. Tactile
means "touchable" and haptic means "perceptible". In the specialist literature, the term "tactile perception" is used for
passive "being touched" and the term "haptic perception" for "active recognition" (including temperature
Strictly speaking, when a blind person reads Braille, they perceive tactile information
haptically. For the sake of simplicity, only the term tactile is used on fakoo.de.
Where can you buy braille tablets or braille material here on fakoo.de?
Nothing is sold on the fakoo.de website. Links to good
German sites for selling Braille materials, books, machines or signs or blind watches can be found on the
different sites by following the link Braille kaufen.
Fingeralphabet / Sign language
Is there a sign alphabet?
No. The finger alphabet, which is used in sign language
to spell names and unfamiliar words, cannot reproduce any gestures (i.e. movement sequences
plus facial expressions and posture). The sign language itself does not have an alphabet, since the
number of signs is enormous and there is not (yet) an independent, generally recognized script for it.
How do deaf people use finger alphabet?
The finger alphabet is mainly used to spell unknown names
or terms before a separate sign is determined for them. Finger alphabet is not suitable for full conversation with
the deaf, but finger alphabet is used exclusively for dactyling with the deaf-blind
Are there international or regional differences?
Just as there are regional and international differences in spoken language,
there are also differences in sign language and even in fingeralphabet. While these differences are still
relatively small in the fingeralphabet, the sign language has numerous dialects and even age-dependent
differences in the form of signs. vA basic form does not exist due to the lack of writing.
Why can't you learn sign language online?
On the one hand, sign language as the natural language of the deaf is very
extensive, on the other hand there is no written form of expression for it. However, since
sign language is a three-dimensional optical language, the only effective form
of representation is video, which of course quickly exceeds the capacity limits of a website and also
harbors the risk of confusion or misunderstandings if the representation is insufficient.
(When selecting offers, you should make sure that the hand position, movement and
facial expressions of the gestures can be clearly recognized from the illustrations or videos.) Of course, the best way to learn is in a course with a native speaker!
Why are the signs for other numbers missing in the finger alphabet?
Please do not confuse finger alphabet with sign language. With the
finger alphabet, in contrast to sign language, numbers are formed from the digits
as shown by the graphics.
(By the way, all digits in the American finger alphabet can be formed with one hand.)
In sign language, on the other hand, there are separate signs for 11, 12, etc. 20, 30, etc. 100, 200,
etc. 1000, millions and the like (varies by region ).
How do deaf-blind people learn Lormen?
Since deaf-blindness is a multiple disability, language acquisition depends
on when the individual disabilities occurred. Lormen is therefore the "mother tongue"
for only a few deaf-blind people, even if it is the most commonly used form of communication among German
In those who are deaf-blind from birth, learning occurs through constant repetition of a word
as a result of touching the palm of the hand (Lormen) and feeling an object at the same time. And this
until the deaf-blind person recognizes the connection (infinite patience required).
Is lormen the only way for deaf-blind people to communicate?
No. There are numerous forms of communication for the deaf-blind, also
depending on the onset of the disabilities and previous language acquisition or the respective technical
possibilities. In the USA mainly the dactylation (finger alphabet) is used, in Great Britain the manual
alphabet (two-handed finger alphabet) is used and in Germany the Lormen is primarily to be found. There
are countless other ways that deafblind people communicate.
Is Moon used practically today?
No. The Moon alphabet has been almost completely superseded by the Braille
alphabet and is only used in a few countries such as Great Britain in connection with special disabilities
or in Latin America. The attempt to reintroduce the moon alphabet in Germany in the 1990s was discontinued
after five years.
Can you use Moon on the computer?
The normal Moon alphabet consists exclusively of lines and cannot be used
on the computer. But even the Dotty-Moon, which was developed for computer use, can only be printed with
special Dotty-Moon printers, direct output on the computer is just as impossible as direct input of
(This would only be possible with the 9-dot variant Moon-9, which was developed
by the author of this page in 2008. The output could be directly on a Braille display.)
What are the advantages of the new relief writing Quadoo?
In contrast to other relief fonts, none of which are suitable for writing
by hand by the blind, Quadoo consists of only six defined lines that can also be
written (drawn) by hand using the simplest stencil. Quadoo is not a secret script, but it can be used in many
areas (e.g. outdoors) as a temporary script or written as Code.
What distinguishes Quadoo from the similar HVD alphabet?
At first glance, HVD looks just like Quadoo. Both alphabets use the square
with the two diagonals as a basis. But in contrast to Quadoo, the HVD alphabet has no
digits and only 2 punctuation marks, and the assignment of the 24 letters to the Latin alphabet is
sometimes incomprehensible (J, K, Q and X are missing, since HVD is a phonetic transcription, but Ð and Ø
for certain sounds). Both were created independently, but HVD is due to poor legibility more of a code than
a readable alphabet like Quadoo.
Why was another dot writing created?
The dot writing Fakoo
is intended to enable the
written exchange of information between blind and sighted people or to enable the late-blind or
deaf-blind to communicate in writing or electronically without having to learn Braille.
(Many late-blind people cannot do anything with Braille, since the dots represent
a secret code that cannot be deciphered and is intellectually overwhelming.) Fakoo cannot and should not replace Braille. That's not possible. However, the main advantage of Fakoo
lies in the recognition of Latin letters and Arabic numerals (shift characters are not required here).
In addition, all Braille technology can be used for this writing, all Fakoo characters can be described
by two Braille characters. (see also Fakoo advant)
Is this writing already being used in practice?
Since the braille Fakoo is still relatively new
and is therefore not yet known to all potential users, no practical use is known. Interest has been
signaled by the deaf-blind, while those responsible for the education of the late-blind have so
far rejected this writing.